UN Secretary-General Ban Ki Moon called on world leaders to agree on an agreement to curb global warming at the 69th session of the UN General Assembly on 23 September 2014 in New York. The next climate summit was held in Paris in 2015, the date of the Paris Agreement, which succeeded the Kyoto Protocol. In 2011, Canada, Japan and Russia said they would not meet other Kyoto targets.  The Canadian government announced on December 12, 2011, effective December 15, 2012, its possible withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol, effective December 15, 2012 Canada has committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions to 6% below 1990 levels by 2012, but in 2009 emissions were 17% to 190 higher. The Harper government has prioritized oil sands development in Alberta and de-introduced the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Environment Minister Peter Kent called Canada`s responsibility for “enormous financial sanctions” under the treaty unless he withdrew.   He also suggested that the recently signed Durban Agreement could provide another way forward.  The Harper government has said it will find a “Made in Canada” solution. Canada`s decision was generally not well received by representatives of other ratification countries.  Since June 2013, there have been 192 parties to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which aims to combat global warming. This total includes 191 states (189 UN member states as well as the Cook and Niue Islands) and a supranational Union (the European Union).   Canada waived the protocol effective December 15, 2012 and ceased to be a member from that date. At COP13 in Bali, 36 developed countries in the contact group (plus the EU as a contracting party to the European Union) agreed to increase their emissions by 10% for Iceland; However, EU Member States each have individual commitments for much larger increases (up to 27%) are allowed for some of the least developed EU countries (see Kyoto Protocol – Increased greenhouse gas emissions since 1990).
 The reduction restrictions expired in 2013. The protocol has a monitoring, verification and verification system in place, as well as a compliance system, to ensure transparency and hold the parties to account. Emissions from all countries had to be monitored and operations had to be accurately recorded by recording systems. After a series of lectures entangled in differences of opinion, the delegates of COP21, held in Paris in 2015, signed a comprehensive but non-binding agreement to limit the rise in global average temperature to a maximum of 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels, while maintaining this increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels. The pioneering agreement, signed by the 196 signatories of the UNFCCC, effectively replaced the Kyoto Protocol.