Between 2002 and 2013, the Colombian government opened 121 bid manipulation investigations, which led 69 companies to pay nearly $23.5 million in fines, nine of which were sanctioned. It has been found that Colombia generally complies with OECD recommendations on competitive procurement.  Bid manipulation is an illegal practice within the meaning of criminal law or competition in most developed countries. Depending on the court, it is punishable by fines, imprisonment or both. Bid manipulation is a form of agreement in which bidders decide who should be successful in the tender and then formulate their bids accordingly. Bid manipulation is a form of market manipulation and can have significant consequences in terms of cartels. Dango refers to collusion in Japan, specifically the “conference,” and is an extremely widespread system in Japan. Dango can be seen as a system of bureaucracy, government and private construction industry advantageous to both parties, where bid manipulation is incredibly frequent, benefiting both corporate collusion and officials in the form of bribes. However, the Dango system is often supported by the fact that it allows small businesses to continue to face competition, although critics quickly point out the economic inefficiencies of a non-competitive market.  In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S.
government, particularly the United States Trade Representative Office and the Commerce Department, made streviative efforts to urge the Japanese government to reform Dango as a de facto non-tariff barrier for foreign companies in the Japanese construction market. Despite years of negotiations, including the promises made by the Japanese government in the trade negotiations of the Structural Empires Initiative (SII), this practice has never been entirely eloquent and has continued to flourish. The Petrobras scandal goes beyond bid manipulation in the oil sector, as the investigation also involved Brazilian construction companies, as preparations for the 2016 Summer Olympics revealed widespread bid manipulation. This would not be the first case of manipulation of bidders by construction companies in Brazil`s recent history, with Andrade Gutierrez Engenharia SA, the country`s second largest construction company, admitting to proposing manipulations in awarding stadium contracts for the 2014 World Cup. This revelation concerns five other national construction companies and was revealed by the Conselho Administrativo de Defesa Econémica (CADE).  Bid manipulation is an illegal practice in which competing parties unite to determine the winner of a tendering process. Bid manipulation is a form of anti-competitive collusion and an act of market manipulation; when bidders coordinate, this undermines the bidding process and can lead to a higher manipulated price than could have resulted from a competitive open market bidding process. The manipulation of offers can harm consumers and taxpayers, who may be forced to bear the costs of rising prices and purchases.